Pulmonary vein stenosis mimicking interstitial lung disease

Pulmonology. 2021 Nov-Dec;27(6):584-589. doi: 10.1016/j.pulmoe.2020.05.010. Epub 2020 Jun 19.


Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is a rare condition, often difficult to diagnose and associated with poor prognosis at advanced stages. Lung parenchymal abnormalities are indirect evidence of PVS and can manifest as multifocal opacities, nodular lesions, unilateral effusions, and interstitial septal thickening. These can lead to erroneous diagnoses of airway disease, pneumonia, malignancies or interstitial lung disease. This review summarizes the current literature about the approach to, evaluation and management of these patients. Our case report demonstrates that PVS is an under-recognized complication of cardiovascular surgery and should be considered in all patients presenting with respiratory symptoms after a cardiac procedure.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lung / diagnostic imaging*
  • Lung Diseases, Interstitial / diagnosis*
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Middle Aged
  • Phlebography / methods*
  • Pulmonary Veins / diagnostic imaging*
  • Stenosis, Pulmonary Vein / diagnosis*