Purpose: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is associated with tumor predisposition and nonmalignant health conditions. Whether survivors of childhood cancer with NF1 are at increased risk for poor long-term health outcomes is unknown.
Methods: One hundred forty-seven 5+ year survivors of childhood glioma with NF1 from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study were compared with 2629 non-NF1 glioma survivors and 5051 siblings for late mortality, chronic health conditions, and psychosocial, neurocognitive, and socioeconomic outcomes.
Results: Survivors with NF1 (age at diagnosis: 6.8 ± 4.8 years) had greater cumulative incidence of late mortality 30 years after diagnosis (46.3% [95% confidence interval: 23.9-62.2%]) compared with non-NF1 survivors (18.0% [16.1-20.0%]) and siblings (0.9% [0.6-1.2%]), largely due to subsequent neoplasms. Compared with survivors without NF1, those with NF1 had more severe/life-threatening chronic conditions at cohort entry (46.3% [38.1-54.4%] vs. 30.8% [29.1-32.6%]), but similar rates of new conditions during follow-up (rate ratio: 1.26 [0.90-1.77]). Survivors with NF1 were more likely to report psychosocial impairments, neurocognitive deficits, and socioeconomic difficulties compared with survivors without NF1.
Conclusions: Late mortality among glioma survivors with NF1 is twice that of other survivors, due largely to subsequent malignancies. Screening, prevention, and early intervention for chronic health conditions and psychosocial and neurocognitive deficits may reduce long-term morbidity in this vulnerable population.
Keywords: cancer survivorship; glioma; neurofibromatosis type 1; pediatric brain tumor.