Background: There is no consensus on the ideal bariatric operation to choose for patients with extremely high body mass index (BMI). The aim of this study was to compare the perioperative complications, weight loss, and comorbidity remission between laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) among patients with BMI ≥ 60 kg/m2.
Methods: Data from a statewide bariatric surgery registry were used to identify all patients with BMI ≥ 60 kg/m2 undergoing LRYGB or LSG between January 2006 and June 2019. Risk and reliability adjustment were used to compare outcomes between the two groups.
Results: A total of 6015 patients were identified and 2505 (41.6%) underwent LRYGB and 3510 (58.4%) underwent LSG. The overall mean age was 43.1 ± 11.2 years with a mean preoperative BMI of 66.7 ± 6.4 kg/m2. Females accounted for 69.3% and the majority were either white (68.5%) or black (21.2%). LRYGB was associated with a higher rate of adjusted 30-day postoperative serious complications (4.0% vs 2.2%; p < 0.01) including anastomotic leak, obstruction, and bleeding. Resource utilization was also higher with LRYGB (23.7% vs 14.8%; p < 0.01) and included more emergency department visits, readmissions, reoperations, and length of stay ≥ 4 days. The overall 1-year follow-up rate was 38.8%. The adjusted percent total weight loss at 1 year was significantly higher following LRYGB compared to LSG (36.6 ± 9.3 vs 31.3 ± 9.3%; p < 0.01). LRYGB was associated with a higher rate of treatment discontinuation for diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and obstructive sleep apnea.
Conclusions: In patients with BMI ≥ 60 kg/m2, LRYGB was associated with better weight loss and medication discontinuation 1 year following surgery at the expense of an increase in perioperative complications and resource utilization compared to LSG.
Keywords: Bariatric surgery; Complications; Gastric bypass; Outcomes; Sleeve gastrectomy.