Novel Insights Into Illness Progression and Risk Profiles for Mortality in Non-survivors of COVID-19

Front Med (Lausanne). 2020 May 22;7:246. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2020.00246. eCollection 2020.

Abstract

Background. The outbreak of COVID-19 has attracted the attention of the whole world. Our study aimed to describe illness progression and risk profiles for mortality in non-survivors. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed 155 patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan and focused on 18 non-survivors among them. Briefly, we compared the dynamic profile of biochemical and immune parameters and drew an epidemiological and clinical picture of disease progression from disease onset to death in non-survivors. The survival status of the cohort was indicated by a Kaplan-Meier curve. Results. Of the non-survivors, the median age was 73.5 years, and the proportion of males was 72.2%. Five and 13 patients were hospital-acquired and community-acquired infection of SARS-CoV-2, respectively. The interval between disease onset and diagnosis was 8.5 days (IQR, [4-11]). With the deterioration of disease, most patients experienced consecutive changes in biochemical parameters, including lymphopenia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, hypoproteinemia, as well as elevated D-dimer and procalcitonin. Regarding the immune dysregulation, patients exhibited significantly decreased T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, including CD3+T, CD3+CD4+Th, and CD3+CD8+Tc cells. By the end of the disease, most patients suffered from severe complications, including ARDS (17/18; 94.4%), acute cardiac injury (10/18; 55.6%), acute kidney injury (7/18; 38.9%), shock (6/18; 33.3%), gastrointestinal bleeding (1/18; 5.6%), as well as perforation of intestine (1/18; 5.6%). All patients died within 45 days after the initial hospital admission with a median survivor time of 13.5 days (IQR, 8-17). Conclusions. Our data show that patients experienced consecutive changes in biochemical and immune parameters with the deterioration of the disease, indicating the necessity of early intervention.

Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; complete clinical course; disease progression; non-survivor.