Essential oils (EOs) and honeybee products (e.g., honey and propolis) are natural mixtures of different volatile compounds that are frequently used in traditional medicine and for pathogen eradication. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) EO (TTEO), Rosmarinus officinalis EO (ROEO), manuka-based gel, and propolis against 23 strains of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (SP) isolated from canine pyoderma. Antimicrobial resistance screening was assessed using a panel of nine antimicrobial agents coupled with a PCR approach. An aromatogram was done for both EOs, using the disk diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for all the compounds. Among the 23 SP strains, 14 (60.9%) were multidrug-resistant (MDR), 11 strains (47.8%) were methicillin-resistant (MRSP), and 9 (39.1%) were non-MDR. The mean diameter of the inhibition zone for Melaleuca and Rosmarinus were 24.5 ± 8.8 mm and 15.2 ± 8.9 mm, respectively, resulting as statistically different (p = 0.0006). MIC values of TTEO and ROEO were similar (7.6 ± 3.2% and 8.9 ± 2.1%, respectively) and no statistical significances were found. Honeybee products showed lower MIC compared to those of EOs, 0.22 ± 0.1% for Manuka and 0.8 ± 0.5% for propolis. These findings reveal a significant antibacterial effect for all the tested products.
Keywords: MRSP; antibiotic resistance; melaleuca alternifolia; multidrug resistance; virulence factors.