Employment of Mapping Technology in Antimicrobial Resistance Reporting in Saudi Arabia

Geospat Health. 2020 Jun 22;15(1). doi: 10.4081/gh.2020.868.


Although Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) is a worldwide threat, local AMR databases do not exist. Unlike other health disasters, developing containment strategies for AMR cannot be started without a representative, local, updated AMR data. However, Geographical Information Systems (GIS) mapping technology is capable of visualizing AMR data integrated with geographical regions. Due to the absence of AMR databases in Saudi Arabia, we searched Medline and Embase databases from inception until May 28, 2018, including literature that reported AMR data on the most prevalent gram-negative bacterial strains in Saudi Arabia. These data were extracted into Microsoft Excel file and inserted into STATA software, version 13 and ArcMap 10.6 software platform for mapping. We found particularly high levels of AMR in Makkah (Mecca), possibly due to high antibiotic consumption because of the influx of pilgrims, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates showing the highest resistance rate against amikacin, aztreonam, cefepime, ceftazidime, ciprolfloxacin, gentamicin, imipenem, meropenem and pipracillin/tazobactam, and Enterobacteriaceae isolates against cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, imipenem and ertapenem. The cause is, however, multifactorial since Acinetobacter baumannii isolates showed a variable resistance rate throughout the country. The employment of mapping technology in displaying AMR data extracted from published literature is a practically useful approach, and advanced GIS analyses should help stakeholders create containment strategies and allocate resources to slow down the emergence of AMR.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acinetobacter baumannii / drug effects
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents* / pharmacology
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial* / drug effects
  • Geographic Information Systems*
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa / drug effects
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Technology


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents