Differential expression of Bax-Bcl-2 and PARP-1 confirms apoptosis of EAC cells in Swiss albino mice by Morus laevigata

J Food Biochem. 2020 Aug;44(8):e13342. doi: 10.1111/jfbc.13342. Epub 2020 Jun 24.


A safer natural alternative to treat neoplastic cells by inducing apoptosis is a prime requisite. Therefore, the current study was to evaluate the antiproliferative activity of Morus laevigata, a wild-type Mulberry species. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of aqueous extracts of M. laevigata leaf (MLL) and M. laevigata bark (MLB) were evaluated. The in vivo cell growth inhibition was assessed on Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing mice model. Fluorescent microscopy and expression of PARP-1, Bax, and Bcl-2 through qPCR were performed to evaluate apoptosis. MLL and MLB extracts show promising antioxidant property with an IC50 value of 186.76 µg/ml and 352.97 µg/ml, respectively, with a decent LD50 value of 99.16 µg/ml and 92.54 µg/ml for MLL and MLB extract, respectively, indicated notable cytotoxicity. Cell growth inhibition was observed using MLL and MLB extracts were 68.33% and 48.66%, respectively. The morphological alteration, DNA fragmentation, and differential expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and PARP-1 confirm the induction of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Plant-based medicine always plays a tremendous role in preventing several fatal diseases like cancer. The study evaluated the anticancer activity of a wild-type mulberry. Moreover, the potent antioxidant activity of the plant makes it possible to be a great candidate for cancer remedy. Besides, the molecular expression of the genes related to apoptosis confirms the plant's bioactive compounds could be a drug lead to neoplastic cells in the future. Presences of an immense antioxidant properties urge that they can be contribute in cancer treatment through the cell death pathways.

Keywords: Morus; Bax-Bcl-2; DNA fragmentation; anticancer; antioxidant; apoptosis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis
  • Ascites
  • Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor* / drug therapy
  • Mice
  • Morus*
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein / genetics


  • Bax protein, mouse
  • Plant Extracts
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein
  • Bcl2 protein, mouse
  • Parp1 protein, mouse
  • Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1