The pyrrolysyl-tRNA/pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylT/RS) pair from the archaeon Methanosarcina mazei (Mma) is widely used in protein engineering to site-specifically introduce noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) through nonsense codon suppression. Here, we engineer the PylT/RS pair encoded by Methanogenic archaeon ISO4-G1 (G1) to be orthogonal to Mma PylT/RS and alter the G1 PylRS active site to accept a complementary ncAA spectrum. We combine the resulting mutual orthogonal pairs for site-specific dual ncAA incorporation of two lysine analogs with high selectivity and efficiency. Demonstrating the robustness of the system, we incorporate two ncAAs with compatible bioorthogonal reactivity into a Notch receptor, as well as a G protein-coupled receptor. We show that selective and site-specific incorporation of two ncAAs allows for two-color bioorthogonal labeling as well as chemical-controlled crosslinking of surface proteins on live mammalian cells.
Keywords: Pyrrolysyl-tRNA-synthetase; amber suppression; bioorthogonal labeling; cell surface receptors; fluorescence microscopy; fluorescent labeling; genetic code expansion; noncanonical amino acids; stop codon suppression; unnatural amino acid mutagenesis.
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