Durable humoral immunity against epidemic infectious disease requires the survival of long-lived plasma cells (LLPCs). LLPC longevity is dependent on metabolic programs distinct from short-lived plasma cells (SLPCs); however, the mechanistic basis for this difference is unclear. We have previously shown that CD28, the prototypic T cell costimulatory receptor, is expressed on both LLPCs and SLPCs but is essential only for LLPC survival. Here we show that CD28 transduces pro-survival signaling specifically in LLPCs through differential SLP76 expression. CD28 signaling in LLPCs increased glucose uptake, mitochondrial mass/respiration, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Unexpectedly, CD28-mediated regulation of mitochondrial respiration, NF-κB activation, and survival was ROS dependent. IRF4, a target of NF-κB, was upregulated by CD28 activation in LLPCs and decreased IRF4 levels correlated with decreased glucose uptake, mitochondrial mass, ROS, and CD28-mediated survival. Altogether, these data demonstrate that CD28 signaling induces a ROS-dependent metabolic program required for LLPC survival.
Keywords: CD28; IRF4; ROS; SLP76; metabolism; mitochondria; plasma cell.
Copyright © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.