Morphoproteomics and Etiopathogenic Features of Pulmonary COVID-19 With Therapeutic Implications: A Case Study

Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2020 May;50(3):308-313.

Abstract

Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged the world economically and medically. Understanding and defining the biology of this specific coronavirus infection may lead to targeted therapies to lessen its virulence and expand the host resistance. This study's objective was to apply morphoproteomics to pulmonary lung sections from a forensic autopsy of an untreated COVID-19 victim, so that we may better define its biology from the perspective of its interaction with the host and provide options for therapeutic targets.

Design: Morphoproteomic analysis from a case study of this COVID-19 pulmonary infection included immunohistochemical probes to detect phosphorylated p-STAT3 (Tyr 705), as part of the interleukin (IL)-6 pathway; cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes, Programmed Death (PD)-1 receptor+ lymphoid cells, CD56+ NK lymphoid cells, CD163+ (M2 polarized monocytes/macrophages), and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression as part of the host response to interaction with the COVID-19 virus.

Results: Representative sections of the COVID-19 victim's lung showed: nuclear expression of p-STAT3 (Tyr 705) in many of the alveolar pneumocytes and in occasional endothelial cells; COX-2 expression in the alveolar pneumocytes; a relative paucity of CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes; absence of CD56+ NK lymphoid cells; abundance of intra-alveolar and alveolar interstitial CD163+ macrophages/monocytes; PD-L1 expression on occasional macrophages, focally on collections of alveolar pneumocytes, and on cells in the alveolar interstitium; and rare PD-1+ lymphocytes in similar regions as CD8+ lymphocytes.

Conclusion: Morphoproteomics and microanatomical features coincide with the etiopathogenic features of pulmonary coronavirus infection and the host response. This suggests that a targeted therapy could address the biology of COVID-19 pneumonia, enhance the host immune response and prevent its progression to a life-threatening, ventilator-dependent clinical situation.

Keywords: morphoproteomics; pulmonary COVID-19.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Betacoronavirus / isolation & purification*
  • Biomarkers / analysis
  • Biomarkers / metabolism*
  • Coronavirus Infections / complications*
  • Coronavirus Infections / virology
  • Fatal Outcome
  • Humans
  • Lung Diseases / etiology
  • Lung Diseases / metabolism*
  • Lung Diseases / pathology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pandemics
  • Pneumonia, Viral / complications*
  • Pneumonia, Viral / virology
  • Proteome / analysis*
  • Proteome / metabolism

Substances

  • Biomarkers
  • Proteome

Supplementary concepts

  • COVID-19
  • severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2