Background and objective: COVID-19 is a highly contagious viral disease. In this study, we tried to define and discuss all the findings on the potential association between arachidonic acid (AA) pathway and COVID-19 pathophysiology.
Methods: A literature search across PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane database was conducted. A total of 25 studies were identified.
Results: The data elucidated that COX-2 and prostaglandins (PGs), particularly PGE2, have pro-inflammatory action in COVID-19 pathophysiology. Arachidonic acid can act as endogenous antiviral compound. A deficiency in AA can make humans more susceptible to COVID-19. Targeting these pro-inflammatory mediators may help in decreasing the mortality and morbidity rate in COVID-19 patients.
Conclusions: PGE2 levels and other PGs levels should be measured in patients with COVID-19. Lowering the PGE2 levels through inhibition of human microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) can enhance the host immune response against COVID-19. In addition, the hybrid compounds, such as COX-2 inhibitors/TP antagonists, can be an innovative treatment to control the overall balance between AA mediators in patients with COVID-19.
Keywords: Arachidonic acid; COVID-19; Eicosanoids; Leukotrienes; Prostaglandins; Thromboxane.