Nonsurgical Management of Oligozoospermia

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Dec 1;105(12):e4194-e4207. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgaa390.


Male infertility secondary to oligozoospermia is surprisingly common. Although a majority of cases are idiopathic, oligozoospermia can be caused by endocrine dysfunction, anatomic abnormalities, medications, or environmental exposures. The work-up includes excluding reversible factors such as hormonal deficiency, medication effects, and retrograde ejaculation and identifying any underlying genetic syndrome and treating reversible medical causes. If no reversible cause is found, appropriate referrals to urology and assisted reproductive technology should be initiated. Lastly, clinicians should be aware of and respond to the psychological and general health ramifications of a diagnosis of oligozoospermia as part of the comprehensive care of men and couples struggling with a diagnosis of infertility.

Keywords: FSH; LH; gonadotropins; male infertility; semen.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Disease Management
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Oligospermia / diagnosis*
  • Oligospermia / etiology
  • Oligospermia / therapy*
  • Semen Analysis