In a representative sample of 401 adults in Illinois in 1984, the authors found that increased participation in exercise, sports, and physical activities is associated with improved psychologic well-being. Part of this association is through improved subjective physical health. The authors controlled for potentially confounding factors, including sociodemographic characteristics, instrumentalism, and overweight. They concluded that exercise is associated with decreased symptoms of depression (feelings that life is not worthwhile, low spirits, etc.), anxiety (restlessness, tension, etc.), and malaise (rundown feeling, trouble sleeping, etc.) in the general population, most of which is not severely depressed, and in which many persons are engaged in moderate, nonaerobic exercise.