Vascular disease poses a major public health problem worldwide. Trigonelline isolated from Raphanus sativus cv. Sakurajima Daikon (Sakurajima radish) induces nitric oxide production from vascular endothelial cells and enhances vascular function. Here, we investigated the characteristics of trigonelline and its effects on endothelial function after consumption of Sakurajima radish by humans. Our results show that Sakurajima radish contains approximately 60 times more trigonelline than other radishes and squashes. Additionally, no significant differences were observed between varieties of Sakurajima radish, suggesting that any type of Sakurajima radish can be ingested for trigonelline supplementation. The effects of cooking and processing Sakurajima radish were also evaluated, as were the effects of freezing, and changes in osmotic pressure and pH. A first-in-human trial using Sakurajima radish showed that ingestion of 170 g/day of Sakurajima radish for ten days increased blood trigonelline concentrations and significantly improved flow-mediated dilation, which is a measure of vascular endothelial function. Overall, our findings suggest that the trigonelline contained in Sakurajima radish may contribute to improved human vascular endothelial function. Hence, Sakurajima radish may enhance vascular endothelial function as a functional food.
Keywords: clinical trial; humans; radish; trigonelline; vascular function.