The importance of nutritional factors and dietary management of Hashimoto's thyroiditis

Ann Agric Environ Med. 2020 Jun 19;27(2):184-193. doi: 10.26444/aaem/112331. Epub 2019 Oct 2.


Hashimoto (HT) is an autoimmune disease in which destruction of the thyroid occurs as a result of lymphocyte infiltration. It is caused by an increased level of titers of antibody against thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (TG). Because of that,in HT patients, changes are observed in the level and metabolism of thyroid hormones, which leads to unspecified physical and psychological symptoms. A high level of antibodies attacking thyroid antigens has been positively correlated with the symptoms. From the etiological point of view, the most important are genetic factors; however, environmental factors are necessary to provoke the immune system to attack until the process is over. Scientists indicate specified stress, toxification, microbiota dysbiosis and under- or over-nutrition, to name only a few. Dietotherapy of Hashimoto's is based on the proper nourishment of the body and regulation of the immune system by an anti-inflammatory diet. Observational and controlled trials have shown frequent nutrition deficiencies in HT patients. In literature, there is evidence for selenium, potassium, iodine, copper, magnesium, zinc, iron, vitamin A, C, D and B. The role of the proper level of protein intake, dietary fibre and unsaturated fatty acids, especially the n-3 family, has been indicated. HT patients should often eliminate lactose because of intolerance and interactions with levothyroxine and gluten because of possible interactions of gliadin with thyroid antigens. The article describes the nutrition factors of HT patients, and share nutrition recommendations for diet therapy.

Keywords: diet therapy; gluten; hypothyroidism; lactose.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Hashimoto Disease / diet therapy*
  • Humans
  • Nutritional Status*