Model-Based Approach for Establishing the Predicted Clinical Response of a Delayed-Release and Extended-Release Methylphenidate for the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2020 Jul/Aug;40(4):350-358. doi: 10.1097/JCP.0000000000001222.


Purpose/background: HLD200 is an evening-dosed, delayed-release and extended-release methylphenidate (DR/ER-MPH) that provides a consistent delay in initial drug release to target onset of therapeutic effect from awakening and maintain it into the evening. Building on a modeling framework established with other extended-release methylphenidate formulations, pharmacokinetic (PK) and PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) models for DR/ER-MPH were developed to describe the time course of effect in response to a range of doses and administration times.

Methods/procedures: Using available PK data from healthy adults, a population PK model was developed using a 1-compartment model with a time-varying absorption rate described by a single Weibull function. A PK/PD model was then developed using Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn, and Pelham combined scores from a phase 3 trial of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and simulated plasma concentration-time data. Simulations using the PK/PD model were performed for doses of 60, 80, and 100 mg of DR/ER-MPH, administered 4 to 14 hours before the classroom day.

Findings/results: The PK/PD model predicts that DR/ER-MPH produces a clinical response from early morning into the late afternoon or evening, with increased duration of response occurring with increasing doses. Furthermore, the PK/PD model predicts that maximal clinical effect is achieved with DR/ER-MPH administered 12 hours before the start of the classroom day.

Implications/conclusions: Model-predicted duration of benefit with DR/ER-MPH is consistent with trial data documenting improvements in functional impairment during the early morning and evening. This model may facilitate dosage optimization by predicting changes in clinical benefit with dose and administration time adjustment.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / drug therapy*
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants / therapeutic use
  • Clinical Trials as Topic / statistics & numerical data
  • Delayed-Action Preparations / therapeutic use*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Biological*
  • Young Adult


  • Central Nervous System Stimulants
  • Delayed-Action Preparations