Suspected congenital hyperinsulinism in a Shiba Inu dog

J Vet Intern Med. 2020 Sep;34(5):2086-2090. doi: 10.1111/jvim.15834. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Abstract

A 3-month-old male intact Shiba Inu dog was evaluated for a seizure disorder initially deemed idiopathic in origin. Seizure frequency remained unchanged despite therapeutic serum phenobarbital concentration and use of levetiracetam. The dog was documented to be markedly hypoglycemic during a seizure episode on reevaluation at 6 months of age. Serum insulin concentrations during hypoglycemia were 41 U/μL (reference range, 10-29 U/μL). The dog was transitioned to 4 times per day feeding, diazoxide was started at 3.5 mg/kg PO q8h, and antiepileptic drugs were discontinued. No clinically relevant abnormalities were identified on bicavitary arterial and venous phase contrast computed tomographic imaging. The dog remained seizure-free and clinically normal at 3 years of age while receiving 5.5 mg/kg diazoxide PO q12h and twice daily feeding. Seizures later occurred approximately twice per year and after exertion, with or without vomiting of a diazoxide dose. Blood glucose curves and interstitial glucose monitoring were used to titrate diazoxide dose and dosing interval. Congenital hyperinsulinism is well recognized in people but has not been reported in veterinary medicine.

Keywords: hypoglycemia; inherited; insulinoma; nesidioblastosis; pancreatic hyperplasia.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Glucose
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring / veterinary
  • Congenital Hyperinsulinism* / drug therapy
  • Congenital Hyperinsulinism* / veterinary
  • Dog Diseases* / diagnostic imaging
  • Dog Diseases* / drug therapy
  • Dogs
  • Hyperinsulinism* / drug therapy
  • Hyperinsulinism* / veterinary
  • Male
  • Seizures / drug therapy
  • Seizures / veterinary
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed

Substances

  • Blood Glucose