Implications of NAD + boosters in translational medicine

Eur J Clin Invest. 2020 Oct;50(10):e13334. doi: 10.1111/eci.13334. Epub 2020 Jul 22.


Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ ) is an essential metabolite in energy metabolism as well as a co-substrate in biochemical reactions such as protein deacylation, protein ADP-ribosylation and cyclic ADP-ribose synthesis mediated by sirtuins, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) and CD38. In eukaryotic cells, NAD+ is synthesized through three distinct pathways, which offer different strategies to modulate the bioavailability of NAD+ . The therapeutic potential of dietarily available NAD+ boosters preserving the NAD+ pool has been attracting attention after the discovery of declining NAD+ levels in ageing model organisms as well as in several age-related diseases, including cardiometabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we review the recent advances in the biology of NAD+ , including the salubrious effects of NAD+ boosters and discuss their future translational strategies.

Keywords: NAD+ booster; ageing; nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+); nicotinamide riboside (NR).

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • ADP-ribosyl Cyclase / antagonists & inhibitors
  • ADP-ribosyl Cyclase / metabolism
  • Aging / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Biosynthetic Pathways
  • Carboxy-Lyases / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome
  • Humans
  • NAD / biosynthesis
  • NAD / metabolism*
  • Niacinamide / analogs & derivatives*
  • Niacinamide / therapeutic use
  • Nicotinamide Mononucleotide / therapeutic use*
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases / metabolism
  • Probiotics
  • Pyridinium Compounds / therapeutic use*
  • Sirtuins / metabolism
  • Translational Research, Biomedical


  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors
  • Pyridinium Compounds
  • nicotinamide-beta-riboside
  • NAD
  • Nicotinamide Mononucleotide
  • Niacinamide
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases
  • ADP-ribosyl Cyclase
  • Sirtuins
  • Carboxy-Lyases
  • aminocarboxymuconate-semialdehyde decarboxylase