How valvular calcification can affect the outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implantation

Expert Rev Med Devices. 2020 Aug;17(8):773-784. doi: 10.1080/17434440.2020.1789456. Epub 2020 Jul 13.


Introduction In transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), assessment of aortic valve calcification is not as standardized as aortic annulus measurement. Aortic valve calcification is important for stable anchoring of the prosthesis to the aortic annulus. However, excessive aortic valve calcification is related to procedural complications. Areas covered This review covers the methods to assess aortic valve calcification and the implications of aortic valve calcium burden for TAVI outcomes. We performed a systematic review of the literature in Pubmed and secondary sources. Furthermore, future perspectives on how to integrate aortic valve calcification assessment in the management of patients with aortic stenosis is discussed. Expert opinion Thorough assessment of the aortic valve and aortic root components including aortic valve calcification is key in the planning of TAVI. Aortic valve calcification load, location and extension are important contributors to paravalvular regurgitation. Asymmetric calcification burden with greater calcification of the left-coronary cusp related to higher need of permanent pacemaker implantation. Patients with moderate and severe left ventricular outflow tract/subannular calcification are more susceptible to aortic annular rupture. Periprocedural dislodgement of calcium form cusps and commissures is one of the main reasons of coronary artery ostial occlusion during transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Abbreviations Ao, aorta; LA, left atrium; LAA, left atrial appendage; LV, left ventricle; LVOT, left ventricular outflow tract; THV, transcatheter heart valve.

Keywords: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation; aortic valve calcification; calcium score; conduction abnormalities; multidetector computed tomography; paravalvular regurgitation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aortic Valve / diagnostic imaging
  • Aortic Valve / pathology*
  • Aortic Valve / surgery
  • Aortic Valve Insufficiency / diagnostic imaging
  • Aortic Valve Insufficiency / surgery
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis / diagnostic imaging
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis / surgery*
  • Calcinosis / diagnostic imaging
  • Calcinosis / surgery*
  • Heart Conduction System / diagnostic imaging
  • Heart Conduction System / surgery
  • Humans
  • Multidetector Computed Tomography
  • Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement*
  • Treatment Outcome

Supplementary concepts

  • Aortic Valve, Calcification of