Gut Hormone GIP Induces Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in the Hypothalamus

Endocrinology. 2020 Sep 1;161(9):bqaa102. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqaa102.


The hypothalamus plays a critical role in controlling energy balance. High-fat diet (HFD) feeding increases the gene expression of proinflammatory mediators and decreases insulin actions in the hypothalamus. Here, we show that a gut-derived hormone, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), whose levels are elevated during diet-induced obesity, promotes and mediates hypothalamic inflammation and insulin resistance during HFD-induced obesity. Unbiased ribonucleic acid sequencing of GIP-stimulated hypothalami revealed that hypothalamic pathways most affected by intracerebroventricular (ICV) GIP stimulation were related to inflammatory-related responses. Subsequent analysis demonstrated that GIP administered either peripherally or centrally, increased proinflammatory-related factors such as Il-6 and Socs3 in the hypothalamus, but not in the cortex of C57BL/6J male mice. Consistently, hypothalamic activation of IκB kinase-β inflammatory signaling was induced by ICV GIP. Further, hypothalamic levels of proinflammatory cytokines and Socs3 were significantly reduced by an antagonistic GIP receptor (GIPR) antibody and by GIPR deficiency. Additionally, centrally administered GIP reduced anorectic actions of insulin in the brain and diminished insulin-induced phosphorylation of Protein kinase B and Glycogen synthase kinase 3β in the hypothalamus. Collectively, these findings reveal a previously unrecognized role for brain GIP signaling in diet-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in the hypothalamus.

Keywords: G protein-coupled receptors; glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP); hypothalamus; inflammation; obesity; peptides.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Diet, High-Fat
  • Encephalitis / chemically induced*
  • Encephalitis / genetics
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide / administration & dosage
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide / pharmacology*
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide / physiology
  • Hypothalamus / drug effects*
  • Hypothalamus / immunology
  • Hypothalamus / pathology
  • Inflammation / chemically induced*
  • Inflammation / genetics
  • Infusions, Intraventricular
  • Insulin Resistance* / genetics
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Mice, Obese
  • Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone / genetics
  • Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone / physiology*
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects
  • Signal Transduction / genetics
  • Up-Regulation / drug effects
  • Up-Regulation / genetics


  • Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide
  • gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor