With the widespread use of imaging modalities performed for the staging of prostate cancer, the incidental detection of synchronous tumors is increasing in frequency. Robotic surgery represents a technical evolution in the treatment of solid tumors of the urinary tract, and it can be a valid option in the case of multi-organ involvement. We reported a case of synchronous prostate cancer and bifocal renal carcinoma in a 66-year-old male. We performed the first case of a combined upper- and lower-tract robotic surgery for a double-left-partial nephrectomy associated with radical prostatectomy by the transperitoneal approach. A comprehensive literature review in this field has also been carried out. Total operative time was 265 min. Renal hypotension time was 25 min. Blood loss was 250 mL. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course. No recurrence occurred after 12 months. In the literature, 10 cases of robotic, radical, or partial nephrectomy and simultaneous radical prostatectomy have been described. Robotic surgery provides less invasiveness than open surgery with comparable oncological efficacy, overcoming the limitations of the traditional laparoscopy. During robotic combined surgery for synchronous tumors, the planning of the trocars' positioning is crucial to obtain good surgical results, reducing the abdominal trauma, the convalescence, and the length of hospitalization with a consequent cost reduction. Rare complications can be related to prolonged pneumoperitoneum. Simultaneous robotic prostatectomy and partial nephrectomy appears to be a safe and feasible surgical option in patients with synchronous prostate cancer and renal cell carcinoma.
Keywords: combined robotic surgery; partial nephrectomy; prostatectomy; radical prostatectomy; robotic.