This study describes the association between dietary patterns and prostate cancer (PCa) risk in a population-based case-control study conducted in Montreal, Canada (2005-2012). Cases (n = 1919) were histologically confirmed, aged ≤75 years. Concomitantly, controls (n = 1991) were randomly selected from the electoral list and frequency-matched to cases by age (±5 years). During face-to-face interviews, a 63-item food frequency questionnaire focusing on the two years before diagnosis/interview was administered. Three dietary patterns were identified from principal component analysis. Unconditional logistic regression estimated the association between dietary patterns and PCa, adjusting for age, ethnicity, education, family history, and timing of last PCa screening. When comparing scores in the highest vs. lowest quartiles, the Healthy Eating pattern was associated with a decreased risk of overall PCa (Odds ratio (OR) = 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.61, 0.93); this association was stronger for high-grade cancers (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.48, 0.89). By contrast, the Western Sweet and Beverages pattern was associated with an elevated risk of overall PCa (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.66). The Western Salty and Alcohol pattern was not associated with PCa risk. These findings suggest that some dietary patterns influence PCa development.
Keywords: Healthy Eating pattern; Western Salty and Alcohol pattern; Western Sweet and Beverages pattern; case-control study; dietary patterns; principal component analysis; prostate cancer.