Background: Poor eye contact and joint attention are early signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and important prerequisites for developing other socio-communicative skills. Teaching parents evidence-based techniques to improve these skills can impact the overall functioning of children with ASD. We aimed to analyse the impact of conducting a group parent-training intervention with video modelling to improve the intelligent quotient (IQ), social and communication functioning and to minimise symptoms in children with ASD and intellectual disability (ID).
Methods: Study design: A multicentre, single-blinded, randomised clinical pilot trial of parent training using video modelling was conducted.
Sample: Sixty-seven parents of children with ASD, aged between 3 and 6 years and with IQs between 50 and 70, were randomised: 34 to the intervention group and 33 to the control group. Intervention program: The intervention group received parent training over 22 sessions, and the control group received the standard community treatment.
Instruments: Pre-evaluation and post-evaluation (week 28), the following were used: Autism Diagnostic Interview, Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scale I, Snijders-Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test, Autism Behaviour Checklist and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale.
Data analysis: Intention to treat and complier-average causal effect (CACE) were used to estimate the effects of the intervention.
Results: There was a statistically significant improvement in the Vineland standardized communication scores in CACE (Cohen's d = 0.260). There was a non-statistically significant decrease in autism symptomatology (Autism Behaviour Checklist total scores) and a significant increase in the non-verbal IQ in the intervention group. After the false discovery rate correction was applied, IQ remained statistically significant under both paradigms. The effect size for this adjusted outcome under the intention-to-treat paradigm was close to 0.4, and when considering adherence (CACE), the effect sizes were more robust (IQ's Cohen's d = 0.433).
Conclusions: Parent training delivered by video modelling can be a useful technique for improving the care given to children with ASD and ID, particularly in countries that lack specialists.
Keywords: autism spectrum disorders; clinical trial; parent training; public health; video modelling.
© 2020 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.