Volume-Outcome Association of Mitral Valve Surgery in the United States

JAMA Cardiol. 2020 Jul 1;e202221. doi: 10.1001/jamacardio.2020.2221. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Importance: Early surgery for severe primary degenerative mitral regurgitation is recommended, provided optimal outcomes are achievable. Contemporary national data defining mitral valve surgery volume and outcomes are lacking.

Objective: To assess national 30-day and 1-year outcomes of mitral valve surgery and define the hospital- and surgeon-level volume-outcome association with mitral valve repair or replacement (MVRR) in patients with primary mitral regurgitation.

Design, setting, and participants: This multicenter cross-sectional observational study used the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database to identify patients undergoing isolated MVRR for primary mitral regurgitation in the United States. Operative data were collected from July 1, 2011, to December 31, 2016, and analyzed from March 1 to July 1, 2019, with data linked to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services.

Main outcomes and measures: The primary outcome was 30-day in-hospital operative mortality after isolated MVRR for primary mitral regurgitation. Secondary outcomes were 30-day composite mortality plus morbidity (any occurrence of bleeding, stroke, prolonged ventilation, renal failure, or deep wound infection), rate of successful mitral valve repair of primary mitral regurgitation (residual mitral regurgitation of mild [1+] or better), and 1-year mortality, reoperation, and rehospitalization for heart failure.

Results: A total of 55 311 patients, 1094 hospitals, and 2410 surgeons were identified. Increasing hospital and surgeon volumes were associated with lower risk-adjusted 30-day mortality, lower 30-day composite mortality plus morbidity, and higher rate of successful repair. The lowest vs highest hospital volume quartile had higher 1-year risk-adjusted mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.61, 95% CI, 1.31-1.98), but not mitral reoperation (odds ratio [OR], 1.51; 95% CI, 0.81-2.78) or hospitalization for heart failure (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.96-1.64). The surgeon-level 1-year volume-outcome associations were similar for mortality (HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.32-1.94) but not significant for mitral reoperation (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.60-2.18) or hospitalization for heart failure (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.91-1.50).

Conclusions and relevance: National hospital- and surgeon-level inverse volume-outcome associations were observed for 30-day and 1-year mortality after mitral valve surgery for primary mitral regurgitation. These findings may help to define access to experienced centers and surgeons for the management of primary mitral regurgitation.