We reviewed rheumatic diseases in an Inupiat Eskimo population and found a high frequency of seronegative spondyloarthritides. Most cases of juvenile arthritis, which occurred with particularly high incidence in male children (47.4/100,000), appeared to belong in the spondyloarthropathic category. Both Reiter's disease and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy were common disorders in adults. The prevalence of ankylosing spondylitis (0.2%) was less than expected in a population with a high percentage of HLA-B27 positive individuals. The prevalence rates of rheumatoid arthritis (1.0%), gout (0.3%), and other rheumatic diseases were similar to those of the United States population in general.