The SNAP 101 Double-Blind, Placebo/Active-Controlled, Safety, Pharmacokinetic, and Pharmacodynamic Study of INP105 (Nasal Olanzapine) in Healthy Adults

J Clin Psychiatry. 2020 Jun 30;81(4):19m13086. doi: 10.4088/JCP.19m13086.


Objective: INP105 is a drug-device combination of olanzapine and technology that delivers a powder formulation of olanzapine to the vascular-rich upper nasal space. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety, and tolerability of single ascending doses of INP105, olanzapine intramuscular (OLZ IM), and olanzapine oral disintegrating tablet (OLZ ODT).

Methods: This was a phase 1, active and double-blind placebo comparator-controlled, ascending-dose, 2-period, incomplete-block, 1-way crossover study in 40 healthy subjects, randomized to single doses of OLZ IM (5 or 10 mg) or OLZ ODT (10 mg) in Period 1 and then 1 of 3 doses (5 mg, 10 mg, or 15 mg) of INP105 or placebo in Period 2 between July and October 2018. Sedation and attention were evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS), the Agitation/Calmness Evaluation Scale (ACES), and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST).

Results: At equivalent doses, INP105 provided similar area under the drug concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0 to the last measurable concentration, AUC from time 0 to infinity, and maximum observed concentration (Cmax) as OLZ IM and greater Cmax than but similar AUCs to OLZ ODT. Median time to maximum concentration was less for INP105 (15, 10, and 9.5 min for 5 mg, 10 mg, and 15 mg, respectively) than for OLZ IM (20 and 15 min for 5 mg and 10 mg, respectively) or OLZ ODT (120 min). Effects as measured with the VAS, ACES, and DSST with INP105 5 mg were comparable to those with OLZ IM 5 mg, with earlier onset for INP105 10 mg and 15 mg and greater effects than placebo and OLZ ODT. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events with INP105 5 mg, 10 mg, and 15 mg was 80%, 66.7%, and 75%, respectively, compared to 90% and 100% for OLZ IM 5 mg and 10 mg, respectively, and 83.3% for OLZ ODT; most common were dizziness, hypotension, and orthostatic symptoms.

Conclusions: INP105 has rapid absorption and pharmacodynamic effects and may represent an effective, convenient, noninvasive, and well-tolerated alternative for treating acutely agitated patients by self- or caregiver administration in the home, community, or hospital environments.

Trial registration: identifier: NCT03624322.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase I
  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Intranasal
  • Administration, Oral
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Antipsychotic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Antipsychotic Agents / adverse effects
  • Antipsychotic Agents / pharmacokinetics
  • Antipsychotic Agents / pharmacology
  • Attention / drug effects
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Healthy Volunteers
  • Humans
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives / pharmacology
  • Injections, Intramuscular
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neuropsychological Tests
  • Olanzapine / administration & dosage
  • Olanzapine / adverse effects*
  • Olanzapine / pharmacokinetics*
  • Olanzapine / pharmacology
  • Young Adult


  • Antipsychotic Agents
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives
  • Olanzapine

Associated data