Genetic Variants in the FGB and FGG Genes Mapping in the Beta and Gamma Nodules of the Fibrinogen Molecule in Congenital Quantitative Fibrinogen Disorders Associated with a Thrombotic Phenotype

Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Jun 29;21(13):4616. doi: 10.3390/ijms21134616.


Fibrinogen is a hexameric plasmatic glycoprotein composed of pairs of three chains (Aα, Bβ, and γ), which play an essential role in hemostasis. Conversion of fibrinogen to insoluble polymer fibrin gives structural stability, strength, and adhesive surfaces for growing blood clots. Equally important, the exposure of its non-substrate thrombin-binding sites after fibrin clot formation promotes antithrombotic properties. Fibrinogen and fibrin have a major role in multiple biological processes in addition to hemostasis and thrombosis, i.e., fibrinolysis (during which the fibrin clot is broken down), matrix physiology (by interacting with factor XIII, plasminogen, vitronectin, and fibronectin), wound healing, inflammation, infection, cell interaction, angiogenesis, tumour growth, and metastasis. Congenital fibrinogen deficiencies are rare bleeding disorders, characterized by extensive genetic heterogeneity in all the three genes: FGA, FGB, and FGG (enconding the Aα, Bβ, and γ chain, respectively). Depending on the type and site of mutations, congenital defects of fibrinogen can result in variable clinical manifestations, which range from asymptomatic conditions to the life-threatening bleeds or even thromboembolic events. In this manuscript, we will briefly review the main pathogenic mechanisms and risk factors leading to thrombosis, and we will specifically focus on molecular mechanisms associated with mutations in the C-terminal end of the beta and gamma chains, which are often responsible for cases of congenital afibrinogenemia and hypofibrinogenemia associated with thrombotic manifestations.

Keywords: FGB gene; FGG gene; beta and gamma nodules; fibrinogen; mutations associated with thrombosis; quantitative fibrinogen disorders.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Afibrinogenemia / genetics*
  • Afibrinogenemia / physiopathology
  • Blood Coagulation Tests
  • Factor XIII / genetics
  • Fibrin / genetics
  • Fibrinogen / genetics*
  • Fibrinogen / metabolism*
  • Fibrinolysis / genetics
  • Hemorrhage
  • Hemostasis
  • Hemostatics
  • Humans
  • Phenotype
  • Thrombosis / genetics
  • Thrombosis / physiopathology


  • FGB protein, human
  • FGG protein, human
  • Hemostatics
  • Fibrin
  • Fibrinogen
  • Factor XIII