Experimental Models in Neovascular Age Related Macular Degeneration

Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Jun 29;21(13):4627. doi: 10.3390/ijms21134627.


Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (vAMD), characterized by the neo-vascularization of the retro-foveolar choroid, leads to blindness within few years. This disease depends on angiogenesis mediated by the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) and to inflammation. The only available treatments consist of monthly intravitreal injections of antibodies directed against VEGF or VEGF/VEGFB/PlGF decoy receptors. Despite their relative efficacy, these drugs only delay progression to blindness and 30% of the patients are insensitive to these treatments. Hence, new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Experimental models of vAMD are essential to screen different innovative therapeutics. The currently used in vitro and in vivo models in ophthalmic translational research and their relevance are discussed in this review.

Keywords: in vitro model of AMD; mice and zebrafish model of AMD; neovascular age related macular degeneration (vAMD); wet AMD.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Animals
  • Choroidal Neovascularization / drug therapy
  • Choroidal Neovascularization / physiopathology
  • Corneal Neovascularization / drug therapy
  • Corneal Neovascularization / physiopathology
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Humans
  • Intravitreal Injections
  • Macular Degeneration / drug therapy*
  • Macular Degeneration / metabolism
  • Macular Degeneration / physiopathology*
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / therapeutic use*


  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A