Stimulated Raman Scattering in Ge Nanowires

J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces. 2020 Jun 25;124(25):13872-13877. doi: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.0c02602. Epub 2020 May 28.


Investigating group-IV-based photonic components is a very active area of research with extensive interest in developing complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible light sources. However, due to the indirect band gap of these materials, effective light-emitting diodes and lasers based on pure Ge or Si cannot be realized. In this context, there is considerable interest in developing group-IV based Raman lasers. Nevertheless, the low quantum yield of stimulated Raman scattering in Si and Ge requires large device footprints and high lasing thresholds. Consequently, the fabrication of integrated, energy-efficient Raman lasers is challenging. Here, we report the systematic investigation of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in Ge nanowires (NWs) and axial Al-Ge-Al NW heterostructures with Ge segments that come into contact with self-aligned Al leads with abrupt metal-semiconductor interfaces. Depending on their geometry, these quasi-one-dimensional (1D) heterostructures can reassemble into Ge nanowires, Ge nanodots, or Ge nanodiscs, which are monolithically integrated within monocrystalline Al (c-Al) mirrors that promote both optical confinement and effective heat dissipation. Optical mode resonances in these nanocavities support in SRS thresholds as low as 60 kW/cm2. Most notably, our findings provide a platform for elucidating the high potential of future monolithically integrated, nanoscale low-power group-IV-based Raman lasers.