An updated guide to the diagnosis and management of cesarean scar pregnancies

Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2020 Aug;32(4):255-262. doi: 10.1097/GCO.0000000000000644.


Purpose of review: To review the current literature on the diagnosis and management of cesarean scar pregnancies RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of cesarean scar pregnancies (CSPs) is increasing as a result of the increasing cesarean section rate, improved diagnostic capabilities, and a growing awareness. CSPs are associated with significant morbidity and early diagnosis is key. Diagnosis is best achieved with transvaginal ultrasound. Sonographic diagnostic criteria have been developed over decades and recently endorsed by the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine and other professional societies. The current categorization system differentiates CSPs that are endogenic or 'on the scar' from those that are exogenic or 'in the niche'. Following diagnosis, the challenge remains in determining the optimal management as multiple modalities can be considered. Studies have demonstrated the favorable outcomes with combined local and systemic methotrexate, surgical excision through multiple routes, and adjunctive therapies, such as uterine artery embolization or uterine balloons. The current evidence is insufficient to identify a single best treatment course and a combined approach to treatment is often required.

Summary: Successful outcomes while minimizing complications can be achieved with a multidisciplinary, collaborative effort. Guidelines for cesarean scar pregnancies will continue to evolve as the published reports grow.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Abortifacient Agents, Nonsteroidal
  • Cesarean Section / adverse effects*
  • Cicatrix / complications*
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Dilatation and Curettage / methods
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Methotrexate / therapeutic use
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy, Ectopic / diagnosis*
  • Pregnancy, Ectopic / etiology
  • Pregnancy, Ectopic / therapy*
  • Ultrasonography, Prenatal
  • Uterine Artery Embolization / methods


  • Abortifacient Agents, Nonsteroidal
  • Methotrexate