The kidneys and the urinary tract are a common source of infection in children of all ages, especially infants and young children. The main risk factors for sequelae after urinary tract infections (UTI) are congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and bladder-bowel dysfunction. UTI should be considered in every child with fever without a source. The differentiation between upper and lower UTI is crucial for appropriate management. Method of urine collection should be based on age and risk factors. The diagnosis of UTI requires urine analysis and significant growth of a pathogen in culture. Treatment of UTI should be based on practical considerations regarding age and presentation with adjustment of the initial antimicrobial treatment according to antimicrobial sensitivity testing. All children, regardless of age, should have an ultrasound of the urinary tract performed after pyelonephritis. In general, antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended.Conclusion: Based on recent data and in line with international guidelines, multidisciplinary Swiss consensus recommendations were developed by members of Swiss pediatric infectious diseases, nephrology, and urology societies giving the clinician clear recommendations in regard to diagnosis, type and duration of therapy, antimicrobial treatment options, indication for imaging, and antibiotic prophylaxis. What is Known: • Urinary tract infections (UTI) are a common and important clinical problem in childhood. Although children with pyelonephritis tend to present with fever, it can be difficult on clinical grounds to distinguish cystitis from pyelonephritis, particularly in young children less than 2 years of age. • Method of urine collection is based on age and risk factors. The diagnosis of UTI requires urine analysis and significant growth of a pathogen in culture. What is New: • Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) remains a risk factor for UTI but per se is neither necessary nor sufficient for the development of renal scars. Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and bladder-bowel dysfunction play a more important role as causes of long-term sequelae. In general, antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended. • A switch to oral antibiotics should be considered already in young infants. Indications for invasive imaging are more restrictive and reserved for patients with abnormal renal ultrasound, complicated UTI, and infections with pathogens other than E. coli.
Keywords: CAKUT; Guideline; Imaging; Prophylaxis; Urinary tract infection; Vesicoureteric reflux.