Long-Term ACE Inhibitor/ARB Use Is Associated with Severe Renal Dysfunction and Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with severe COVID-19: Results from a Referral Center Cohort in the North East of France

Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 5;ciaa677. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa677. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background: In patients with severe COVID-19, data are scarce and conflicting regarding whether chronic use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) influences disease outcomes. In patients with severe COVID-19, we assessed the association between chronic ACEI/ARB use and the occurrence of kidney, lung, heart, and liver dysfunctions and the severity of the inflammatory reaction as evaluated by biomarkers kinetics, and their association with disease outcomes.

Methods: We performed a retrospective longitudinal cohort study on consecutive patients with newly diagnosed severe COVID-19. Independent predictors were assessed through receiver operating characteristic analysis, time-series analysis, logistic regression analysis, and multilevel modeling for repeated measures.

Results: On the 149 patients included in the study 30% (44/149) were treated with ACEI/ARB. ACEI/ARB use was independently associated with the following biochemical variations: phosphorus >40 mg/L (odds ratio [OR], 3.35, 95% CI, 1.83-6.14), creatinine >10.1 mg/L (OR, 3.22, 2.28-4.54), and urea nitrogen (UN) >0.52 g/L (OR, 2.65, 1.89-3.73). ACEI/ARB use was independently associated with acute kidney injury, AKI stage ≥1 (OR, 3.28, 2.17-4.94). The daily dose of ACEI/ARB was independently associated with altered kidney markers with an increased risk of +25 to +31% per each 10 mg increment of lisinopril-dose equivalent. In multivariable multilevel modeling, UN >0.52 g/L was independently associated with the risk of acute respiratory failure (OR, 3.54, 1.05-11.96).

Conclusions: Patients chronically treated with ACEI/ARB who have severe COVID-19 are at increased risk of acute kidney injury. In these patients, the increase in UN associated with ACEI/ARB use could predict the development of acute respiratory failure.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; acute kidney injury; angiotensin receptor blocker; angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; severe COVID-19.