The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spreading globally, and the WHO has declared this outbreak a pandemic. Vaccines are an effective way to prevent the rapid spread of COVID-19. Furthermore, the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 infection needs to be understood for the development of an efficient and safe vaccine. Here, we review the current understanding of vaccine targets and the status of vaccine development for COVID-19. We also describe host immune responses to highly pathogenic human coronaviruses in terms of innate and adaptive immunities.
Keywords: COVID-19; Coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; immune response; vaccine.