Systematic Review with Meta-analysis: The Impact of Co-occurring Immune-mediated Inflammatory Diseases on the Disease Course of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2021 May 17;27(6):927-939. doi: 10.1093/ibd/izaa167.


Background and aims: Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are at risk of developing a variety of other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs). The influence of co-occurring IMIDs on the disease course of IBD remains unknown. The aim of this study was therefore to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of IMIDs on phenotypic presentation and outcome in patients with IBD.

Methods: PubMed and Embase were searched from their earliest records through December 2018 and updated in October 2019 for studies reporting proportions or ratios of IBD-related disease outcomes in patients with and without co-occurring IMIDs. Meta-analyses were performed to estimate summary proportions and risks of the main outcomes. PRISMA guidelines were used, and study quality was assessed according to the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.

Results: A total of 93 studies were identified, comprising 16,064 IBD patients with co-occurring IMIDs and 3,451,414 IBD patients without IMIDs. Patients with IBD and co-occurring IMIDs were at increased risk of having extensive colitis or pancolitis (risk ratio, 1.38; 95% Cl, 1.25-1.52; P < 0.01, I2 = 86%) and receiving IBD-related surgeries (risk ratio, 1.17; 95% Cl, 1.01-1.36; P = 0.03; I2 = 85%) compared with patients without IMIDs. Co-occurrence of IMIDs other than primary sclerosing cholangitis in patients with IBD was associated with an increased risk of receiving immunomodulators (risk ratio, 1.15; 95% Cl, 1.06-1.24; P < 0.01; I2 = 60%) and biologic therapies (risk ratio, 1.19; 95% Cl, 1.08-1.32; P < 0.01; I2 = 53%).

Conclusion: This meta-analysis found that the presence of co-occurring IMIDs influences the disease course of IBD, including an increased risk of surgery and its phenotypical expression.

Keywords: Crohn’s disease; disease course; immune-mediated inflammatory diseases; inflammatory bowel disease; prognosis; ulcerative colitis.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Cholangitis, Sclerosing*
  • Comorbidity
  • Disease Progression
  • Humans
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases* / complications
  • Odds Ratio
  • Risk Factors