Slug Is A Surrogate Marker of Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in Head and Neck Cancer

J Clin Med. 2020 Jun 30;9(7):2061. doi: 10.3390/jcm9072061.


Background: Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) promotes therapy resistance in head and neck cancer (HNC) cells. In this study, EMT was quantified in HNC tumor samples by the cellular co-localization of cytokeratin/vimentin, E‑cadherin/β‑catenin and by Slug expression.

Methods: Tissue samples from HNC patients were stained with antibody pairs against cytokeratin/vimentin and E-cadherin/β-catenin. Epithelial-mesenchymal co-localization was quantified using immunofluorescence multichannel image cytometry. Double positivity was confirmed using confocal microscopy. Slug was semi-quantified by 2 specialists and quantified by bright field image cytometry.

Results: Tumor samples of 102 patients were investigated. A loss of E-cadherin positive cells (56.9 ± 2.6% vs. 97.9 ± 1.0%; p < 0.0001) and E-cadherin/β-catenin double positive cells (15.4 ± 5.7% vs. 85.4 ± 1.2%; p < 0.0001) was observed in tumor samples. The percentage of Slug positive cells was increased in tumor samples (12.1 ± 3.6% vs. 3.2 ± 2.6%; p = 0.001). Ordinal Slug scores judged by two specialists closely correlated with percentage of Slug-positive cells (Spearman's rho = 0.81; p < 0.001). Slug score correlated negatively with the percentage of E-cadherin positive cells (r = 0.4; p = 0.006), the percentage of E-cadherin/β-catenin positive cells (r = 0.5; p = 0.001) and positively with cytokeratin/vimentin positive cells (r = 0.4, p = 0.003).

Conclusion: EMT can be assessed in HNC tumor probes by cytokeratin/vimentin co-expression and loss of E-cadherin/β-catenin co-expression. Slug score provides a convenient surrogate marker for EMT.

Keywords: E-cadherin; EMT; cancer stem cells; head and neck cancer; image cytometry; p16; p53; β-catenin.