Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may result in the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). The clinical presentation of MIS-C includes fever, severe illness, and the involvement of two or more organ systems, in combination with laboratory evidence of inflammation and laboratory or epidemiologic evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Some features of MIS-C resemble Kawasaki Disease, toxic shock syndrome, and secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/macrophage activation syndrome. The relationship of MIS-C to SARS-CoV-2 infection suggests that the pathogenesis involves post-infectious immune dysregulation. Patients with MIS-C should ideally be managed in a pediatric intensive care environment since rapid clinical deterioration may occur. Specific immunomodulatory therapy depends on the clinical presentation. The relationship between the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in development and MIS-C requires further study.
Keywords: COVID-19; Kawasaki Disease; SARS-CoV-2; hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis; macrophage activation syndrome; multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C); toxic shock syndrome.