We reported previously that cigarette smoking induces bronchoconstriction. In the present investigation we measured the level of peripheral venous blood leukotrienes, which are known to cause marked bronchoconstriction, and plasma complement C3a and C5a, which are known to have chemotactic and anaphylatoxic activities. All of these showed a significant increase after cigarette smoking. These data may suggest that the activation of complement induces the release of leukotrienes, and that these leukotrienes cause bronchoconstriction. It appears likely, therefore, that cigarette smoking induces an increase in peripheral venous blood leukotrienes and complement C3a and C5a, and that such an increase may elicit bronchoconstriction.