Nocturia in patients with cognitive dysfunction: a systematic review of the literature

BMC Geriatr. 2020 Jul 6;20(1):230. doi: 10.1186/s12877-020-01622-8.


Background: The objective of this study is to evaluate current literature on the association between cognitive dysfunction and nocturia.

Methods: A systematic review following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement was conducted through MEDLINE, EMBASE and COCHRANE databases and completed in November 2019. Randomized and non-randomized studies were included if they assessed the association between cognitive dysfunction and nocturia in older participants with or without neurological diseases. The quality of included studies was evaluated using the Risk of Bias Assessment tool for Non-randomized Studies (RoBANS).

Results: A total of 8 cross-sectional studies conducted in older patient populations met the criteria for inclusion. A statistically significant association was identified in 6 studies on univariate analysis, which persisted in 2 studies after controlling for confounding factors. The association between cognitive dysfunction and nocturia was positive for all 6 significant analyses. The overall risk of bias was unclear.

Conclusion: A significant positive association between cognitive dysfunction and nocturia was identified. However, research has been limited to cross-sectional studies, which precludes identification of causality between cognitive dysfunction and nocturia. Heightened awareness of the complex interplay between cognition and nocturia would allow professionals involved in the care of cognitively impaired patients with concomitant nocturia to more effectively manage these symptoms.

Keywords: Cognitive dysfunction; Epidemiology; Lower urinary tract symptoms; Nocturia; Systematic review.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Cognition
  • Cognitive Dysfunction* / diagnosis
  • Cognitive Dysfunction* / epidemiology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Humans
  • Nocturia* / diagnosis
  • Nocturia* / epidemiology
  • Research Design