["Heparjoc-Actúa": educational tool created through a process of participatory action research with vulnerable immigrant groups to improve accessibility to diagnosis of hepatitis B]

Rev Esp Salud Publica. 2020 Jul 7:94:e202007078.
[Article in Spanish]

Abstract

Objective: The World Health Organization estimates that 257 million people suffer from chronic infection by the hepatitis B (HB) virus. It is common for diagnosis to be delayed or never given at all. In Spain, immigrants that come from endemic areas present a prevalence of infection of around 8%. In the year 2015, this study was begun with the aiml of improving accessibility to hepatitis B diagnoses in immigrant communities.

Methods: A descriptive qualitative study was carried out, based on participatory action research (IAP). It was divided into two cycles: in the first cycle, after forming a motor group (GIAP), a participatory community assessment (DCP) was performed with the population, through a descriptive-interpretative qualitative study (ECDI) with 3 focal groups (n=17). A narrative analysis was then performed of thematic content. In the second cycle, two collaborative workshops (coworking) were held to create an educational tool (HEPARJOC) and to co-create an action plan (PDA). As a pilot test, the PDA was put into practice through eight workshops (n=56). A knowledge questionnaire was used to compare the median number of correct responses before and after the workshop, using the t of Student for paired data.

Results: A GIAP was formed with 8 members of different sectors and community spaces. In the DCP it was observed that there was a lack of knowledge about different aspects of hepatitis B. Visual, interactive materials were proposed as educational tools, and "HEPARJOC" was created as the final product. In the pilot test of the PDA, the median of correct responses to the knowledge questionnaire about HB was 7.7 (DE=3) before the workshop, and 10.6 (DE=0.2) afterward. The improvement of the median was 2.9 points (IC 95% 2.2-3.6), which is statistically significant (p<0.001). 30 people sought screening (53.6% of participants), and 23 of those people were screened (41% of participants).

Conclusions: "HEPARJOC-ACTUA" is a strategy that could contribute to transforming knowledge and improving accessibility to hepatitis B diagnosis in immigrant communities. Key words: Infectious diseases, hepatitis B, community health, community health agents, health education, participatory action research, immigration. Key words: Infectious.

Objetivo: La Organización Mundial de la Salud estima que 257 millones de personas padecen infección crónica por el virus de la hepatitis B (HB). Es habitual que el diagnóstico se retrase o que nunca se llegue a realizar. En España, los inmigrantes procedentes de áreas endémicas presentan prevalencias en torno al 8%. En el año 2015, se inició este estudio con el objetivo de mejorar la accesibilidad al diagnóstico de la hepatitis B en colectivos inmigrantes.

Metodos: Se realizó un estudio cualitativo descriptivo, basado en la investigación acción participativa (IAP). Se dividió en dos ciclos: en el primer ciclo, después de configurar un grupo motor (GIAP), se realizó un diagnóstico comunitario participativo (DCP) con la población, a través de un estudio cualitativo descriptivo-interpretativo (ECDI) con 3 grupos focales (n=17). Se llevó a cabo un análisis narrativo de contenido temático. En el segundo ciclo, se realizaron 2 talleres de trabajo colaborativo (coworking) para crear una herramienta educativa (HEPAJOC) y coconstruir un plan de acción (PDA). Como prueba piloto se llevó a cabo este PDA a través 8 talleres (n=56). Se utilizó un cuestionario de conocimientos para comparar la media de respuestas correctas pre y post taller utilizando el t de Student para datos apareados.

Resultados: Se configuró un GIAP con 8 miembros de diferentes sectores y espacios comunitarios. En el DCP se observó que existía un desconocimiento en diferentes aspectos sobre la hepatitis B. Se propusieron, como herramientas educativas, materiales visuales e interactivos, elaborando como producto final el “HEPARJOC”. En la prueba piloto del PDA, la media de las respuestas correctas al cuestionario de conocimientos sobre la HB fue de 7,7 (DE=3) previamente, y de 10,6 (DE=0,2) posteriormente. La mejoría de la media fue de 2,9 puntos (IC 95% 2,2-3,6), siendo estadísticamente significativa (p<0,001). Solicitaron el cribado 30 personas (53,6%), siendo cribadas 23 (41%).

Conclusiones: “HEPARJOC-ACTUA” es una estrategia que puede contribuir a transformar conocimientos y a mejorar la accesibilidad al diagnóstico de la hepatitis B en colectivos inmigrantes.

Keywords: Community Health Agents; Community health; Health education; Hepatitis B; Immigration; Infectious diseases; Participatory Action Research; Spain.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Community-Based Participatory Research
  • Emigrants and Immigrants*
  • Female
  • Focus Groups
  • Health Education
  • Health Services Accessibility*
  • Health Services Research
  • Healthcare Disparities
  • Hepatitis B / diagnosis*
  • Hepatitis B / ethnology
  • Hepatitis B virus
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mass Screening / statistics & numerical data*
  • Pilot Projects
  • Prevalence
  • Qualitative Research
  • Spain / epidemiology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Vulnerable Populations
  • Young Adult