Background: Oral vancomycin (OV) in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) has been evaluated as a potential therapeutic agent. We report the long-term biochemical course and outcomes of patients with PSC treated with OV.
Methods: Patients were enrolled in 2 open-label clinical trials (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01802073 and NCT01322386) and offered OV at 50 mg/kg/day in 3 divided doses if weight <30kg, and 500 mg 3 times/day if weight ≥30kg. Patients with biliary strictures requiring stenting or awaiting liver transplant were excluded. Liver biochemistry, MRCP and histology were documented at baseline and while on OV. The primary outcome was a decrease in elevated gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and/or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) from baseline.
Results: 30 subjects were enrolled, and 29 additional subjects who learned of the clinical trial requested OV (total n = 59; median age was 13.5 years [range, 1.5-44 years]; 64.4% were male; and 94.9% had inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]). The median treatment duration was 2.7 years (range, 0.2-14 years). Ninety-six percent (57/59), 81.3% (48/59), and 94.9% (56/59) experienced reduction of GGT, ALP, and ALT, respectively. Furthermore, 39% (23/59), 22% (13/59), and 55.9% (33/59) experienced normalization of GGT, ALP, and ALT, respectively, within the first 6 months of OV treatment. One patient underwent liver transplantation 8 years after beginning OV treatment, and one developed biliary strictures requiring endoscopic intervention. OV was well-tolerated by patients, and no patient developed treatment-related adverse events.
Conclusion: In PSC, OV was well-tolerated and was associated with improvement in liver chemistry. A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial is warranted.
Keywords: Primary sclerosing cholangitis; and ulcerative colitis; cholangiography; cirrhosis; inflammatory bowel disease; liver biochemistry.