Comparison of immunological, histological and oxidative effects of felbamate and levetiracetam in traumatic brain injury

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2020 Jun;24(12):7083-7091. doi: 10.26355/eurrev_202006_21702.


Objective: We aimed to compare immunological, histological and oxidative effects of antiepileptic agents; felbamate and levetiracetam on head trauma in rats.

Materials and methods: In this study, 32 Sprague-Dawley genus male rats were used. A closed head trauma mechanism was constituted in order to perform head trauma in rats. Rats were divided into 4 groups, and each group had 8 rats. Following head trauma, Group 1 (Control); normal saline was administered, Group 2; levetiracetam 50 mg/kg was administered, Group 3; felbamate 100 mg/kg was administered, and Group 4; levetiracetam 50 mg/kg and felbamate 100 mg/kg were administered with a combination. Injections were administered intraperitoneally once a day for 20 days. The rats were decapitated at the end of the 20th day. Blood and tissue samples were collected and analyzed for biochemical, immunohistochemical and histological parameters.

Results: Serum cytokine levels in Group 2, 3 and 4 were lower when compared to the control group. In Group 4, in which combined therapy was performed, cytokine levels were found to be the lowest. In Groups 2 and 3, a significant decrease in vascular congestion, mononuclear cell infiltration, hemorrhage, and neural degeneration was noticed in the pia mater. In Group 2, a decrease in vascular congestion and Purkinje cell degeneration was obtained in the cerebellum. However, the best outcomes were determined in Group 4.

Conclusions: We determined that levetiracetam and felbamate alone are useful with respect to immunological, oxidative and histological alterations. However, their utility is better when used in a combination.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brain Injuries, Traumatic / drug therapy*
  • Brain Injuries, Traumatic / immunology*
  • Brain Injuries, Traumatic / pathology
  • Cytokines / blood
  • Cytokines / immunology
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Felbamate / administration & dosage
  • Felbamate / pharmacology*
  • Felbamate / therapeutic use*
  • Injections, Intraperitoneal
  • Levetiracetam / administration & dosage
  • Levetiracetam / pharmacology*
  • Levetiracetam / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Oxidative Stress / immunology
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley


  • Cytokines
  • Levetiracetam
  • Felbamate