Objective: We aimed to compare immunological, histological and oxidative effects of antiepileptic agents; felbamate and levetiracetam on head trauma in rats.
Materials and methods: In this study, 32 Sprague-Dawley genus male rats were used. A closed head trauma mechanism was constituted in order to perform head trauma in rats. Rats were divided into 4 groups, and each group had 8 rats. Following head trauma, Group 1 (Control); normal saline was administered, Group 2; levetiracetam 50 mg/kg was administered, Group 3; felbamate 100 mg/kg was administered, and Group 4; levetiracetam 50 mg/kg and felbamate 100 mg/kg were administered with a combination. Injections were administered intraperitoneally once a day for 20 days. The rats were decapitated at the end of the 20th day. Blood and tissue samples were collected and analyzed for biochemical, immunohistochemical and histological parameters.
Results: Serum cytokine levels in Group 2, 3 and 4 were lower when compared to the control group. In Group 4, in which combined therapy was performed, cytokine levels were found to be the lowest. In Groups 2 and 3, a significant decrease in vascular congestion, mononuclear cell infiltration, hemorrhage, and neural degeneration was noticed in the pia mater. In Group 2, a decrease in vascular congestion and Purkinje cell degeneration was obtained in the cerebellum. However, the best outcomes were determined in Group 4.
Conclusions: We determined that levetiracetam and felbamate alone are useful with respect to immunological, oxidative and histological alterations. However, their utility is better when used in a combination.