Objective: Intravenous lipid emulsions (ILE) were developed many decades ago to supply nutritional requirements to patients unable to obtain adequate enteral nutrition. The utility of ILE was extended to therapeutics, facilitating the delivery of drugs. More recently, the potential for ILE to act as an antidote for inversion of drug toxicity has been recognized. This review aims to summarize the literature on ILE therapy as an antidote. Suggested mechanisms of action, safety profile, and recommendations on the administration of ILE in cases of drug intoxication are highlighted.
Materials and methods: A complete literature survey was performed using the PubMed database search to collect available information regarding mechanisms of ILE action as an antidote, ILE administration for drug toxicity, and presentation of adverse events.
Results: A total of 102 studies met the selection criteria for inclusion in the review. Mainly used for local anesthetics toxicity, ILE therapy has been expanded in clinical toxicology involving overdose treatment of drugs other than local anesthetics. Partitioning in a lipid phase of fat droplets is a mechanism named the lipid sink phenomenon that has primarily been described to explain this action of ILE and remains the most widely accepted. At the same time, recent research has also revealed several molecular mechanisms that may contribute to ILE efficacy.
Conclusions: ILE therapy comprises a recognized approach in clinical toxicology. Due to the lack of randomized clinical trials, recommendations on administration are based on animal studies and published cases. Thus, the constantly increased knowledge about ILE therapy supports the need for a detailed appraisal.