Evaluating Biochemically Recurrent Prostate Cancer: Histologic Validation of 18 F-DCFPyL PET/CT with Comparison to Multiparametric MRI

Radiology. 2020 Sep;296(3):564-572. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2020192018. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Abstract

Background Prostate cancer recurrence is found in up to 40% of men with prior definitive (total prostatectomy or whole-prostate radiation) treatment. Prostate-specific membrane antigen PET agents such as 2-(3-{1-carboxy-5-[(6-[18F]fluoro-pyridine 3-carbonyl)-amino]-pentyl}-ureido)-pentanedioic acid (18F-DCFPyL) may improve detection of recurrence compared with multiparametric MRI; however, histopathologic validation is lacking. Purpose To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) of 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT based on histologic analysis and to compare with pelvic multiparametric MRI in men with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer. Materials and Methods Men were prospectively recruited after prostatectomy and/or radiation therapy with rising prostate-specific antigen level (median, 2.27 ng/mL; range, 0.2-27.45 ng/mL) and a negative result at conventional imaging (bone scan and/or CT). Participants underwent 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT imaging and 3.0-T pelvic multiparametric MRI. Statistical analysis included Wald and modified χ2 tests. Results A total of 323 lesions were visualized in 77 men by using 18F-DCFPyL or multiparametric MRI, with imaging detection concordance of 25% (82 of 323) when including all lesions in the MRI field of view and 53% (52 of 99) when only assessing prostate bed lesions. 18F-DCFPyL depicted more pelvic lymph nodes than did MRI (128 vs 23 nodes). Histologic validation was obtained in 80 locations with sensitivity, specificity, and PPV of 69% (25 of 36; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 51%, 88%), 91% (40 of 44; 95% CI: 74%, 98%), and 86% (25 of 29; 95% CI: 73%, 97%) for 18F-DCFPyL and 69% (24 of 35; 95% CI: 50%, 86%), 74% (31 of 42; 95% CI: 42%, 89%), and 69% (24 of 35; 95% CI: 50%, 88%) for multiparametric MRI (P = .95, P = .14, and P = .07, respectively). In the prostate bed, sensitivity, specificity, and PPV were 57% (13 of 23; 95% CI: 32%, 81%), 86% (18 of 21; 95% CI: 73%, 100%), and 81% (13 of 16; 95% CI: 59%, 100%) for 18F-DCFPyL and 83% (19 of 23; 95% CI: 59%, 100%), 52% (11 of 21; 95% CI: 29%, 74%), and 66% (19 of 29; 95% CI: 44%, 86%) for multiparametric MRI (P = .19, P = .02, and P = .17, respectively). The addition of 18F-DCFPyL to multiparametric MRI improved PPV by 38% overall (P = .02) and by 30% (P = .09) in the prostate bed. Conclusion Findings with 2-(3-{1-carboxy-5-[(6-[18F]fluoro-pyridine 3-carbonyl)-amino]-pentyl}-ureido)-pentanedioic acid (18F-DCFPyL) were histologically validated and demonstrated high specificity and positive predictive value. In the pelvis, 18F-DCFPyL depicted more lymph nodes and improved positive predictive value and specificity when added to multiparametric MRI. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Zukotynski and Rowe in this issue.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Contrast Media / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Lysine / analogs & derivatives
  • Lysine / therapeutic use
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging*
  • Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Prostate* / chemistry
  • Prostate* / diagnostic imaging
  • Prostate* / pathology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms* / chemistry
  • Prostatic Neoplasms* / diagnostic imaging
  • Prostatic Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Urea / analogs & derivatives
  • Urea / therapeutic use

Substances

  • 2-(3-(1-carboxy-5-((6-fluoropyridine-3-carbonyl)amino)pentyl)ureido)pentanedioic acid
  • Contrast Media
  • Urea
  • Lysine