Utilization of ZeoliticWaste in Alkali-Activated Biomass Bottom Ash Blends

Molecules. 2020 Jul 3;25(13):3053. doi: 10.3390/molecules25133053.


This study aims to investigate the effects of ammonium-bearing zeolitic waste (FCC) on alkali-activated biomass bottom ash (BBA). FCC was obtained from the oil-cracking process in petroleum plants. In this study, two types of production waste were used: biomass bottom ash and ammonium-bearing zeolitic waste. These binary alkali-activated FCC/BBA blends were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. The compressive strength of the hardened samples was evaluated. The results show that the samples made from alkali-activated BBA biomass bottom ash had low (8.5 MPa) compressive strength, which could be explained with low reactive BBA and insufficient quantities of silicon and aluminum compounds. The reactivity of BBA was improved with incorporating zeolitic waste as an aluminosilicate material. This zeolitic waste was first used for ammonium sorption; then, it was incorporated in alkali-activated samples. Additional amounts of hydrated products formed, such as calcium silicate hydrate, calcium aluminum silicate hydrate and calcium sodium aluminum silicate hydrate. The silicon and aluminum compound, which varied in zeolitic waste, changed the mineral composition and microstructure of alkali-activated binder systems. NH4Cl, which was incorporated in the zeolitic waste, did not negatively affect the compressive strength of the alkali-activated BBA samples. This investigation proved that waste materials can be reused by producing alkali-activated binders.

Keywords: alkali-activated binder; alkali-activated biomass ash; zeolitic waste with NH4Cl.

MeSH terms

  • Alkalies / chemistry*
  • Biomass*
  • Coal Ash / analysis*
  • Coal Ash / chemistry
  • Solid Waste / analysis*
  • Solid Waste / statistics & numerical data*
  • Zeolites / chemistry*


  • Alkalies
  • Coal Ash
  • Solid Waste
  • Zeolites