Restrictions on the use of bisphenol A (BPA) in consumer products led to its replacement by various bisphenol (BP) analogues, yet young children's exposure to these analogues has been poorly characterized so far. This study aimed to characterize infants' and toddlers' exposure to BPA and 14 emerging BP analogues (i.e., bisphenol AF, bisphenol AP, bisphenol B, bisphenol BP, bisphenol C (BPC), bisphenol E, bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol G, bisphenol M (BPM), bisphenol P, bisphenol PH, bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol TMC, and bisphenol Z). We extracted infants' and toddlers' urine from diapers (n = 109) collected in Swiss daycare centers as a practical and noninvasive alternative approach to urinary biomonitoring. Bisphenols were present in 47% of the samples, with BPC and BPM being the most frequently detected (23% and 25% of all samples, respectively). The mean concentrations of urinary BPS and BPF were greater than that of BPA. This contrasts with data reported previously. Furthermore, statistical analysis revealed a significant and negative correlation between urinary BPM concentration and the population's age. Our results provide a first characterization of infants' and toddlers' exposure to bisphenols in Switzerland. This knowledge can be used to support ongoing biomonitoring studies and to prioritize exposure reduction and prevention strategies.
Keywords: biomonitoring; bisphenol analogues; children’s health; endocrine disruptors; urine.