Two cell clones, K12/TRb (PROb) and K12/TSb (REGb), have been isolated from the same serially transplantable tumor, DHD, established from a colon carcinoma chemically induced in the rat. Inoculation of REGb cells gives a tumor which regresses within 4 to 8 weeks and generates immune protection against subsequent injection of the progressive tumor cells, PROb. Inoculation of PROb cells gives a progressive tumor and generates tolerance allowing progressive growth of contralaterally injected REGb cells. Inoculation of REGb cells fully protects the host against growth of a DHD tumor graft, the tumor from which REGb and PROb cells were originally obtained. On the other hand, inoculation of REGb cells does not confer any protection against growth of 4 other syngeneic tumor grafts, DHA, DHB, DHC and DHE. These tumors were obtained from other colonic tumors induced as DHD by 1.2 dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Progressive growth of the tumor induced by inoculation of REGb cells is observed in animals bearing a contralateral DHD tumor, but not in animals bearing tumor from other transplantable lines, DHA, DHB, DHC and DHE. Our results show that immune enhancement of a regressive tumor and the immune protection that it confers constitute specific responses to a tumor-specific transplantation antigen present on a single transplantable colon tumor.