Frogs use retinal elevation as a cue to distance

J Comp Physiol A. 1988;163(5):677-83. doi: 10.1007/BF00603852.


We have investigated the role that retinal elevation plays in a frog's (Rana pipiens) estimate of prey distance. We dissociated retinal elevation from other depth cues by artificially increasing the height of the frogs' eyes above the ground. Frogs then snapped short of their prey in their ventral visual field as if their estimate of distance were determined primarily by the retinal elevation of the image of the prey. The data suggest that the frog assumes its eyes to be about 3 cm above the ground. Other cues modify depth judgements when targets are close to this assumed ground-plane.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Distance Perception / physiology*
  • Eye Movements
  • Head
  • Movement
  • Oculomotor Nerve / physiology
  • Predatory Behavior / physiology
  • Rana pipiens / physiology*
  • Retina / anatomy & histology
  • Retina / physiology*