Biological Activities of Selected Plants and Detection of Bioactive Compounds from Ardisia elliptica Using UHPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry

Molecules. 2020 Jul 6;25(13):3067. doi: 10.3390/molecules25133067.


Plants and plant-based products have been used for a long time for medicinal purposes. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant and anti-α-glucosidase activities of eight selected underutilized plants in Malaysia: Leucaena leucocephala, Muntingia calabura, Spondias dulcis, Annona squamosa, Ardisia elliptica, Cynometra cauliflora, Ficus auriculata, and Averrhoa bilimbi. This study showed that the 70% ethanolic extract of all plants exhibited total phenolic content (TPC) ranging from 51 to 344 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry weight. A. elliptica showed strong 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activities, with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 2.17 and 49.43 μg/mL, respectively. Most of the tested plant extracts showed higher inhibition of α-glucosidase enzyme activity than the standard, quercetin, particularly A. elliptica, F. auriculata, and M. calabura extracts with IC50 values of 0.29, 0.36, and 0.51 μg/mL, respectively. A total of 62 metabolites including flavonoids, triterpenoids, benzoquinones, and fatty acids were tentatively identified in the most active plant, i.e., A. elliptica leaf extract, by using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-electrospray ionization (ESI) Orbitrap MS. This study suggests a potential natural source of antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitors from A. elliptica.

Keywords: anti-α-glucosidase; antioxidant; free radical scavenging; phytochemical characterization; underutilized plants.

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants / chemistry
  • Ardisia / chemistry*
  • Ardisia / enzymology
  • Benzoquinones / chemistry
  • Biphenyl Compounds / metabolism
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Fabaceae / chemistry
  • Fabaceae / enzymology
  • Fatty Acids / analysis
  • Flavonoids / analysis
  • Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors / analysis*
  • Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors / chemistry
  • Inhibitory Concentration 50
  • Malaysia
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Nitric Oxide / metabolism
  • Phenols / analysis*
  • Picrates / metabolism
  • Plant Extracts / analysis
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry*
  • Plants, Medicinal / chemistry*
  • Snails / chemistry
  • Triterpenes / analysis


  • Antioxidants
  • Benzoquinones
  • Biphenyl Compounds
  • Fatty Acids
  • Flavonoids
  • Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors
  • Phenols
  • Picrates
  • Plant Extracts
  • Triterpenes
  • Nitric Oxide
  • 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl

Supplementary concepts

  • Ficus, gastropods