Salivary changes in oxidative stress related to inflammation in oral and gastrointestinal diseases

Oral Dis. 2020 Jul 9. doi: 10.1111/odi.13537. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Objectives: The early diagnosis and monitoring of Crohn's disease (CD) and orofacial granulomatosis (OFG) might be facilitated by assaying potential disease biomarkers in saliva. Markers of oxidative stress and inflammation were assayed in salivas from patients with CD, OFG and concurrent OFG and CD (OFG + CD).

Subjects: Unstimulated whole mouth saliva was collected from 93 subjects, and immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin (LF) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were determined by ELISA. Markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant status were assayed spectrophotometrically.

Results: Immunoglobulin A was significantly (p < .03) higher in experimental groups vs the control group. LF was significantly (p < .01) higher in OFG + CD compared to CTRL and CD. Ferric reducing antioxidant power was lower (p ≤ .009) in all experimental groups, and advanced glycation end products were higher (p ≤ .01) in CD and OFG + CD patients.

Conclusion: Oxidative stress is increased in saliva in CD and OFG. Although MPO, a product of inflammatory cells, was not significantly increased, the other innate immune markers, IgA and LF, which are also secreted by salivary glands, were increased. This study suggests that saliva might be utilized in monitoring CD and OFG but further longitudinal studies focused on analysing a panel of salivary markers are needed.

Keywords: Crohn' s disease; inflammation; orofacial granulomatosis; oxidative stress; saliva.