Spina Bifida is a congenital anomaly that arises from incomplete development of the neural tube. It is commonly used as a nonspecific term referring to any degree of neural tube closure. It can be further subdivided into spina bifida occulta and spina bifida aperta. Spina bifida occulta, or closed spinal dysraphism, is the mildest form of the neural tube defects (NTD) which involves a hidden vertebral defect and minimal neural involvement. Spina bifida aperta, or open spinal dysraphism, refers to a defect in which neural tissues communicate with the external environment such as meningocele and myelomeningocele. These conditions result in a varied spectrum of neurological effects due to the degree of neuralization. Spina bifida is commonly associated with several other developmental abnormalities which makes a multidisciplinary medical plan paramount to survival and positive outcomes.
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